Perfume and Neurological Effects 

JN- Ann Dermatol Venereol 113(1):31-41

TI- [Clinical forms of skin manifestations in allergy to perfume] 

AU- Meynadier JM; Meynadier J; Peyron JL; Peyron L;

PY- 1986

AB- Perfumes are increasingly used in an ever wider variety of fields, including perfumes proper, cosmetic products, hygienic products, drugs, detergents and other household products, plastics, industrial greases, oils and solvents, foods, etc. Their composition is usually complex; it involves numerous natural and synthetic sweet-smelling constituents, more than 5,000 of which are known (13). Perfumes may produce toxic and, more often, allergic respiratory disorders (asthma), as well as neurological (10) and cutaneous disorders. They are the most common cause of skin allergy to cosmetic products (1, 11) and one of the most important causes of skin allergy to topical drugs or even to syrups which may reactivate contact dermatitis (24). People engaged in the manufacturing of these products may become sensitized to perfumes.

SN- 0151-9638

MH- Adult; Aged; Dermatitis, Contact (*DI/ET/PA); Diagnosis, Differential; Eczema (DI); English Abstract; Female; Human; Male; Middle Age; Perfume (*AE); Pruritus (DI); Skin (PA); Urticaria (DI);

AN- 86213586

LA- Fre

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JN- Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 75(3):571-5

TI- Neurotoxic properties of musk ambrette.

AU- Spencer PS; Bischoff-Fenton MC; Moreno OM; Opdyke DL; Ford RA;

PY- 1984 Sep 30

AB- Musk ambrette (2,6-dinitro-3-methoxy-4-tert-butyltoluene), a nitro-musk compound widely used as a fixative in fragrance formulations and found to a lesser degree in flavor compositions, produces hindlimb weakness when administered in the diet or applied to skin of rats for periods up to 12 weeks. Underlying neuropathologic changes consist of primary demyelination and distal axonal degeneration in selected regions of the central and peripheral nervous system. Murine neurological disease induced by musk ambrette occurs at doses well above estimated maximum daily human exposure. Lifetime experimental neurotoxicology studies using lower concentrations of musk ambrette for prolonged periods would be needed for the estimation of human risk.

SN- 0041-008X

MH- Animal; Demyelinating Diseases (CI); Dinitrobenzenes (*TO); Female; Male; Nervous System (*DE/PA); Nitrobenzenes (*TO); Perfume (*TO); Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains; Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t; Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.; Tetrahydronaphthalenes (TO);

AN- 84301013

LA- Eng

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JN- Science 204(4393):633-5

TI- Neurotoxic fragrance produces ceroid and myelin disease.

AU- Spencer PS; Sterman AB; Horoupian DS; Foulds MM;

PY- 1979 May 11

AB- Acetyl ethyl tetramethyl tetralin (AETT), a component of soaps, deodorants, and cosmetics, produces hyperirritability and limb weakness in rats repeatedly exposed to the compound. Brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves are discolored blue, show progressive neuronal ceroid degeneration, and develop spectacular myelin bubbling. These neurotoxic properties of AETT provide the basis for industry’s decision to withdraw the compound from consumer products. In addition, AETT offers the experimentalist a new probe to explore the etiology and pathogeneses of human ceroid and myelin diseases.

SN- 0036-8075

MH- Animal; Ceroid; Demyelinating Diseases (*CI/PA); Movement Disorders (CI); Naphthalenes (*TO); Neurotoxins; Perfume (*TO); Pigmentation Disorders (*CI); Rats; Schwann Cells (PA); Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S.; Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.; Tetrahydronaphthalenes (*TO);

AN- 79159581

LA- Eng

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JN- Food Chem Toxicol 28(1):55-61

TI- 90-day dermal toxicity study and neurotoxicity evaluation of nitromusks in the albino rat.

AU- Ford RA; Api AM; Newberne PM;

PY- 1990 Jan

AB- Musk ketone, musk xylene, musk tibetene and moskene, synthetic musks used in fragrances, were applied dermally to rats in daily doses of 240 (musk ketone and musk xylene only), 75, 24 or 7.5 mg/kg body weight for 90 days. The chemically related musk ambrette, a known neurotoxin in rats, was used as a positive control. While musk ambrette was clearly neurotoxic and caused testicular atrophy, as had been previously reported, the other compounds tested caused neither effect. The only effects of application of these materials were some organ weight changes at the higher doses, but these were not associated with histopathological changes in any of the tissues. The no-effect levels were: musk ketone, 75 mg/kg for males and females; musk xylene, 75 mg/kg for males and 24 mg/kg for females; moskene, 24 mg/kg for males and 75 mg/kg (highest dose administered) for females; and musk tibetene, 75 mg/kg (highest dose) for males and females.

SN- 0278-6915

MH- Administration, Topical; Animal; Body Weight (DE); Dinitrobenzenes (TO); Female; Indans (TO); Kidney (DE); Liver (DE); Male; Molecular Structure; Nervous System (*DE); Organ Weight (DE); Perfume (AD/*TO); Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains; Skin Absorption; Xylenes (TO);

AN- 90185485

LA- Eng

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JN- Biochem Pharmacol 29(11):1531-5

TI- Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in vitro by the neurotoxic fragrance compound acetyl ethyl tetramethyl tetralin and its putative metabolite.

AU- Cammer W;

PY- 1980 Jun 1

SN- 0006-2952

MH- Alcohol, Ethyl (PD); Animal; Brain (ME); In Vitro; Mitochondria (EN); Mitochondria, Liver (ME); Naphthalenes (*PD); Oxidative Phosphorylation (*DE); Oxygen Consumption (DE); Perfume (*); Rats; Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.; Tetrahydronaphthalenes (*PD); Uncoupling Agents (*);

AN- 80242108

LA- Eng

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Perfume and Sensitivity in General 

JN- J Am Acad Dermatol 21(4 Pt 2):880-4

TI- How to instruct patients sensitive to fragrances.

AU- Larsen WG;

PY- 1989 Oct

AB- Patients who are sensitive to fragrances should either use fragrance-free cosmetics or undergo a repeat open application test to the cosmetic or perfume to determine sensitivity. Unusual reactions include systemic contact dermatitis due to balsam of Peru, benzyl alcohol, and menthol. Some responses involve pigmented eruptions due to phototoxic or photoallergic agents in perfumes and incense. Other reactions include consort dermatitis and reactions to toothpastes, gum and perfumes in paper products, sanitary napkins, ostomy pastes, and detergents.

SN- 0190-9622

MH- Balsams; Dermatitis, Contact (*ET); Environmental Exposure; Erythema (ET); Human; Patient Education (*); Perfume (*AE);

AN- 90094763

LA- Eng

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JN- Contact Dermatitis 34( 6): 423-6

TI- Natural ingredients based cosmetics. Content of selected fragrance sensitizers.

AU- Rastogi SC; Johansen JD;

PY- 1996 Jun

AB- In the present study, we have investigated 42 cosmetic products based on natural ingredients for content of 11 fragrance substances: geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, isoeugenol, cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde, citral, coumarin, dihydrocoumarin and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde. The study revealed that the 91% (20/22) of the natural ingredients based perfumes contained 0.027%-7.706% of 1 to 7 of the target fragrances. Between 1 and 5 of the chemically defined synthetic constituents of fragrance mix were found in 82% (18/22) of the perfumes. 35% (7/20) of the other cosmetic products (shampoos, creams, tonics, etc) were found to contain 0.0003-0.0820% of 1 to 3 of the target fragrances. Relatively high concentrations of hydroxycitronellal, coumarin, cinnamic alcohol and alpha-amyl cinnamic aldehyde were found in some of the investigated products. The detection of hydroxycitronellal and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde in some of the products demonstrates that artificial fragrances, i.e., compounds not yet regarded as natural substances, may be present in products claimed to be based on natural ingredients.

SN- 0105-1873

MH- Acrolein*; Alcohol, Propyl*; Aldehydes*; Allergens*; Cosmetics*; Coumarins*; Emollients*; Eugenol*; Hair Preparations*; Human; Perfume*; Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t;

AN- 97034274

LA- Eng

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JN- Am J Contact Dermat 7(2):65-76

TI- Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance: a review.

AU- Scheinman PL;

PY- 1996 Jun

AB- BACKGROUND: Allergy to fragrance is the most common cause of cosmetic contact dermatitis and therefore constitutes a significant clinical problem. The widespread use of fragranced materials in skin care and household products is probably the most important reason for the high incidence of fragrance sensitization. OBJECTIVE: This report will summarize the history of fragrance, review how to detect and evaluate fragrance allergy, discuss the problems inherent in patch testing with the fragrance mix and its constituents, describe systemic contact dermatitis from ingestion of certain flavors, and give suggestions for fragrance-sensitive patients. CONCLUSION: The use of fragrance mix in patch testing has been invaluable in detecting fragrance allergy. Continued investigation into positive patch test responses to fragrance in scented products is essential in helping to identify new fragrance allergens. Additionally, more cooperation is necessary between industry and dermatologists in assisting patients to avoid proven allergens.

SN- 1046-199X

MH- Cosmetics (AE); Dermatitis, Allergic Contact (*ET); Human; Patch Tests; Perfume (*AE);

AN- 96389448

LA- Eng

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JN- Contact Dermatitis 34( 2): 106-10

TI- Exposure to selected fragrance materials. A case study of fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients.

AU- Johansen JD; Rastogi SC;

PY- 1996 Feb

AB- The aim of the present study was to assess exposure to constituents of the fragrance mix from cosmetic products used by fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients. 23 products, which had either given a positive patch and/or use test in a total of 11 fragrance-mix-positive patients, were analyzed. In all cases, the use of these cosmetics completely or partly explained present or past episodes of eczema. Between 1 to 6 constituents of the fragrance mix were found in 22 out of 23 products. The cosmetics of all the patients sensitive to hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde were found to contain the respective substances. Exposure concentrations were seen to cover a large range. The content of hydroxycitronellal was, on average, 5 x higher in cosmetics from hydroxycitronellal-sensitive patients, compared to cosmetics from hydroxycitronellal-negative patients. It is concluded that exposure to constituents of the fragrance mix is common in fragrance-allergic patients with cosmetic eczema, and that the fragrance mix is a good reflection of actual exposure.

SN- 0105-1873

MH- Adolescence*; Adult*; Case Report; Cosmetics*; Dermatitis, Allergic Contact*; Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic*; Female; Human; Male; Middle Age*; Patch Tests*; Skin Diseases, Eczematous*;

AN- 96272535

LA- Eng

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JN- Food Chem Toxicol 26(11-12):921-6

TI- Allergic contact sensitization potential of hydroxycitronellal in humans.

AU- Ford RA; Api AM; Suskind RR;

PY- 1988 Nov-Dec

AB- Hydroxycitronellal, an important ingredient in fragrances, was studied for its sensitizing potential in human skin. Fifteen human maximization tests were conducted with hydroxycitronellal obtained from four different sources at induction concentrations from 5 to 12%. No reactions were induced at 5% in two separate panels while 10% sensitized 2/25 panelists in one test but none in a second. Induction at 12% produced sensitization in 8 of 11 tests. Impurities do not appear to be a sensitizing factor. There is some evidence that the l-stereoisomer is a less potent sensitizer than the d-stereoisomer. In an initial modified human repeat-insult patch-test two positive reactions to challenge were observed among 197 panelists, one at a concentration of 5% and the other at 7.5%. When 100 of the non-reacting panelists were re-exposed in the same way, allergic sensitization reactions appeared during the induction period with concentrations as low as 2.5%. When 28 sensitized panelists were exposed to 1% concentrations in a simulated use test, there were three reactors. A no-effect level for sensitization has not been determined although the lowest concentrations tested were in the product usage range.

SN- 0278-6915

MH- Adolescence; Adult; Aged; Dermatitis, Contact (*ET); Human; Middle Age; Patch Tests;

AN- 89092169

LA- Eng

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JN- Contact Dermatitis 18(2):81-3

TI- Fragrance sensitivity in coal miners.

AU- Goodfield MJ; Saihan EM;

PY- 1988 Feb

AB- In a prospective study, we have examined the incidence of fragrance sensitivity in Nottinghamshire coal miners. Our results confirm previous reports of an increased incidence of such sensitivity in miners (45%) when compared with both male (20%) and female (13%) non-miners. This increased incidence is not related to an increased use of perfumed cosmetics, but may be related to the use of a highly perfumed body lotion in subjects who already have a high incidence of irritant hand eczema. There was no significant increase in the rate of positive reactions to other applied allergens.

SN- 0105-1873

MH- Coal Mining (*); Dermatitis, Contact (*ET); Female; Human; Male; Perfume (*AE); Prospective Studies; Soaps (AE);

AN- 88211140

LA- Eng

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JN- Contact Dermatitis 13(4):258-65

TI- Immediate and delayed reactions to cosmetic ingredients.

AU- Emmons WW; Marks JG Jr;

PY- 1985 Oct

AB- The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and etiology of cutaneous reactions caused by cosmetics, with an emphasis on perfume sensitivity. 19 control subjects and 31 patch test clinic patients (16 with a history of adverse cosmetic reactions) were examined for sensitivity by history, open and patch testing using the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) fragrance screening series and 11 other common allergens found in cosmetics. Contact urticaria was very frequent to certain chemicals; however, patients with a history of cosmetic sensitivity were not found to have a significant increase in positive reactions when compared to controls or patients with eczematous skin. 12 subjects had positive patch test reactions, most of which were not clinically relevant. 3 patients with a history of cosmetic sensitivity had positive reactions, only 1 of which was in the fragrance screening series (cinnamic alcohol). There were 6 reactions in patients with eczematous skin, 4 of which were to preservatives. 3 controls had positive reactions, each to thimerosal. A history of cosmetic sensitivity was not confirmed by open and closed skin testing in our subjects.

SN- 0105-1873

MH- Comparative Study; Cosmetics (*AE); Dermatitis, Contact (*ET); Female; Human; Male; Patch Tests; Perfume (AE); Sex Factors; Time Factors; Urticaria (*CI);

AN- 86107298

LA- Eng

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