Abstracts from peer-reviewed journal articles on the health effects
associated with living in a mobile home

From medline search, 1/29/99


TITLE: Pollen and fungal spores indoor and outdoor of mobile homes.

AUTHORS: Sterling DA; Lewis RD

AUTHOR AFFILIATION: Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, School of Public Health, Department of Community Health, Missouri, USA.

SOURCE: Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1998 Mar;80(3):279-85

CITATION IDS: PMID: 9532979 UI: 98194173

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Allergenic diseases triggered by aeroallergens extract a health cost in quality of life and in economic impact. People generally spend 90% to 95% of their time indoors, so understanding the environmental factors that affect the presence of aeroallergens indoors are important in understanding health impact and potential intervention methods. OBJECTIVE: Describe the relationship of indoor airborne pollen and fungal spores in occupied mobile homes with outdoor concentrations and other environmental factors within geographically diverse areas of Texas. METHODS: Airborne pollen and fungal spores were collected during the daytime with RotoRod samplers indoor and outdoor of mobile homes in Houston and El Paso, Texas. Samples were counted simultaneously with a dual eyepiece microscope and identified morphologically and through staining techniques. RESULTS: Geometric mean concentrations (counts/m3) indoors and outdoors for pollen, respectively, were Houston 7.1 and 196.4; and El Paso 17.5 and 71.5. Geometric mean concentrations (counts/m3) indoors and outdoors for spore, respectively, were Houston 98.5 and 196.4; and El Paso 36.9 and 71.5. Indoor to outdoor ratios (I/O) for pollen and fungal spores were found to be higher on average than has been previously reported. Modeling of predictive factors in Houston demonstrate that 62% and 41% of indoor levels of pollen and fungal spores, respectively, can be explained by their corresponding outdoor levels. These data suggest that the many factors associated with individual exposure to airborne pollen and fungal spores indoors are under the control of the occupant, and may additionally be influenced by the physical characteristics of mobile homes, in particular the high surface area to volume ratio and restricted flow patterns.

TITLE: Approaches for assessing health risks from complex mixtures in indoor air: a panel overview.

AUTHORS: Henry CJ; Fishbein L; Meggs WJ; Ashford NA; Schulte PA; Anderson H; Osborne JS; Sepkovic DW

AUTHOR AFFILIATION: ILSI Risk Science Institute, Washington, DC 20036.

SOURCE: Environ Health Perspect 1991 Nov;95:135-43

CITATION IDS: PMID: 1821367 UI: 92331542

ABSTRACT: Critical to a more definitive human health assessment of the potential health risks from exposure to complex mixtures in indoor air is the need for a more definitive clinical measure and etiology of the health effects of complex mixtures. This panel overview highlights six of the eight presentations of the conference panel discussion and features a number of the major topical areas of indoor air concern. W. G. Meggs assessed clinical research priorities with primary focus on the role of volatile organic chemicals in human health, recognizing the areas where definitive data are lacking. By recognizing many types of chemical sensitivity, it may be possible to design studies that can illuminate the mechanisms by which chemical exposure may cause disease. The critically important topic of multiple chemical sensitivity was discussed by N. A. Ashford, who identified four high risk groups and defined the demographics of these groups. P. A. Schulte addressed the issue of biological markers of susceptibility with specific considerations of both methodological and societal aspects that may be operative in the ability to detect innate or inborne differences between individuals and populations. Three case studies were reviewed. H. Anderson discussed the past and present priorities from a public health perspective, focusing on those issues dealing with exposures to environmental tobacco smoke and formaldehyde off-gassing from materials used in mobile home construction. J. J. Osborne described several case studies involving wood smoke exposure to children, with emphasis on the significantly greater occurrence of chronic respiratory symptoms and acute chest illness for children from homes heated with woodburning stoves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

TITLE: Irritant effects of formaldehyde exposure in mobile homes.

AUTHORS: Liu KS; Huang FY; Hayward SB; Wesolowski J; Sexton K

AUTHOR AFFILIATION: California Indoor Air Quality Program, Air and Industrial Hygiene Laboratory, California Department of Health Services, Berkeley 94704- 9980.

SOURCE: Environ Health Perspect 1991 Aug;94:91-4

CITATION IDS: PMID: 1954947 UI: 92063946

ABSTRACT: This paper reports the irritant effects associated with formaldehyde exposures in mobile homes. Week-long, integrated formaldehyde concentrations were measured using passive monitors in summer and winter while the mobile home residents continued their normal activities. Information on acute health problems, chronic respiratory/allergic illnesses, smoking behavior, demographic variables, and time spent at home was obtained on over 1000 individuals during the sampling period. Measured formaldehyde concentrations varied from under the limit of detection (0.01 ppm) to 0.46 ppm. Formaldehyde exposure was estimated for each individual by multiplying the concentration measured in his or her home by the time he or she spent at home. Irritant effects were found to be associated with formaldehyde exposure after controlling for age, sex, smoking status, and chronic illnesses using a logistic procedure. Some of the interaction terms found to be significant indicated that there were synergistic effects between formaldehyde exposure and chronic health problems.

TITLE: Respiratory health effects of home dampness and molds among Canadian children.

AUTHORS: Dales RE; Zwanenburg H; Burnett R; Franklin CA

AUTHOR AFFILIATION: Health Protection Branch, Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

SOURCE: Am J Epidemiol 1991 Jul 15;134(2):196-203

CITATION IDS: PMID: 1862803 UI: 91320892

ABSTRACT: In 1988, the authors conducted a questionnaire-based study on the health effects of the indoor environment in 30 Canadian communities. This paper focuses on the association between the respiratory health of young children and home dampness and molds. A total of 17,962 parents or guardians of schoolchildren received a questionnaire, and 14,948 (83.2%) questionnaires were returned. Children living in mobile homes, tents, and boats were excluded as were those with cystic fibrosis, leaving 13,495 children included in the study group. The housing stock was distributed as follows: 81% were one-family detached homes, 6% were one-family attached homes, and 13% were buildings for two or more families. Molds were reported in 32.4%, flooding in 24.1%, and moisture in 14.1% of the homes. Prevalences of all respiratory symptoms were consistently higher in homes with reported molds or dampness; i.e., adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.32 (95% confidence interval 1.06- 1.39) for bronchitis to 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.58-2.26) for cough. The prevalence of home dampness or molds, 37.8%, indicates that it is an important public health issue. Further studies are required to elucidate the pathogenesis.

TITLE: A survey of nitrogen dioxide levels measured inside mobile homes.

AUTHORS: Petreas M; Liu KS; Chang BH; Hayward SB; Sexton K

SOURCE: JAPCA 1988 May;38(5):647-51

CITATION IDS: PMID: 3411333 UI: 88316312

MAIN MESH HEADINGS: Air Pollutants, Environmental/*analysis
Nitrogen Dioxide/*analysis


TITLE: Evidence for formaldehyde antibodies and altered cellular immunity in subjects exposed to formaldehyde in mobile homes.

AUTHORS: Thrasher JD; Wojdani A; Cheung G; Heuser G

AUTHOR AFFILIATION: Thrasher & Associates, Northridge, California.

SOURCE: Arch Environ Health 1987 Nov-Dec;42(6):347-50

CITATION IDS: PMID: 3439811 UI: 88149078

ABSTRACT: Eight symptomatic individuals chronically exposed to indoor formaldehyde (HCHO) at low concentrations (0.07-0.55 ppm) were compared to 8 nonexposed subjects with respect to: (1) presence of IgG and IgE antibodies to HCHO conjugated to human serum albumin (F-HSA); (2) the percentage of venous blood T and B cells by E and EAC-rosetting; and (3) the ability of T and B cells to undergo mitogen (PHA, PWM) stimulated blastogenesis as measured by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine. Anti-F-HSA IgG, but no IgE, antibodies were detected in the sera of the 8 exposed subjects; none were found in 7 of the unexposed controls. T lymphocytes were decreased in the exposed (48 +/- 11.5%) compared to the control (65.9 +/- 4.97%) subjects (p greater than .001 less than .01). B cells were 12.6 +/- 1.6% (HCHO group) and 14.75 +/- 2.1% (controls) (p greater than .02 less than .05). The incorporation of labeled thymidine by T cells (PHA) was decreased: 17,882 +/- 2,293 cpm (HCHO group) and 28,576 +/- 3,807 cpm (p greater than .001 less than .01). T and B cell blastogenesis (PWM) was 9,698 +/- 1,441 cpm (HCHO group) and 11,279 +/- 1,711 (controls) (p greater than .05 less than .1). Exposure to HCHO appears to stimulate IgG antibodies to F-HSA and decrease the proportion of peripheral T cells.

TITLE: Formaldehyde-related health complaints of residents living in mobile and conventional homes.

AUTHORS: Ritchie IM; Lehnen RG

SOURCE: Am J Public Health 1987 Mar;77(3):323-8

CITATION IDS: PMID: 3812839 UI: 87125427

ABSTRACT: This paper explores the dose-response relation between formaldehyde (HCHO) concentration and reported health complaints (eye irritation, nose/throat irritation, headaches and skin rash) of nearly 2,000 residents living in 397 mobile and 494 conventional homes. The study analyzes the effects of HCHO concentration, age and sex of respondent, and smoking behavior on each of the four health effects. The results demonstrate a positive dose-response relation between HCHO concentration and reported health complaints, with reported health complaints demonstrated at HCHO concentrations of 0.1 ppm and above. Concentrations of 0.4 ppm in manufactured homes as targeted by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), may not be adequate to protect occupants from discomfort and from acute effects of HCHO exposure.

TITLE: Formaldehyde concentrations in Wisconsin mobile homes.

AUTHORS: Hanrahan LP; Anderson HA; Dally KA; Eckmann AD; Kanarek MS

SOURCE: J Air Pollut Control Assoc 1985 Nov;35(11):1164-7

CITATION IDS: PMID: 4067092 UI: 86060399

MAIN MESH HEADINGS: Air Pollutants/*analysis


TITLE: Genotoxicity of organic chemicals frequently found in the air of mobile homes.

AUTHORS: Connor TH; Theiss JC; Hanna HA; Monteith DK; Matney TS

SOURCE: Toxicol Lett 1985 Apr;25(1):33-40

CITATION IDS: PMID: 3887653 UI: 85193292

ABSTRACT: The 19 chemicals most commonly detected in a study of mobile homes in Texas were tested for mutagenicity using a battery of bacterial test strains; the literature was searched to obtain additional information concerning the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of these chemicals. Formaldehyde was found to be present in 100% of the mobile homes and at the highest mean concentration (167 ppb). The remaining organic chemicals were all present at much lower mean concentrations (less than 10 ppb) and at varying frequencies (2-95%). Of the 19 chemicals tested for mutagenicity, only formaldehyde gave a positive response. A review of the literature revealed that 4 of the chemicals tested, formaldehyde, styrene, tetrachloroethylene and benzene, have been shown to be animal and/or human carcinogens. Thus, formaldehyde is not the only genotoxin present in the air of mobile homes but because it was present in the air of all mobile homes tested at much higher concentrations than the other organic chemicals, formaldehyde should be considered one of the major potential genotoxic hazards present in the air of mobile homes.

TITLE: Formaldehyde vapor in mobile homes: a cross sectional survey of concentrations and irritant effects.

AUTHORS: Hanrahan LP; Dally KA; Anderson HA; Kanarek MS; Rankin J

SOURCE: Am J Public Health 1984 Sep;74(9):1026-7

CITATION IDS: PMID: 6331773 UI: 84278151

ABSTRACT: Sixty-five Wisconsin mobile home households volunteered for an assessment of indoor formaldehyde gas. Sixty-one teenage and adult occupants completed health questionnaires. Formaldehyde concentrations ranged from less than 0.10 to 0.80 ppm, with the risk of ocular discomfort showing a positive dose-response relationship.

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